Planet of Origin:
Class M conditions
120 years (average)
- "Let me tell you something about Humans, Nephew. They're a wonderful, friendly people, as long as their bellies are full and their holosuites are working. But take away their creature comforts, deprive them of food, sleep, sonic showers, put their lives in jeopardy over an extended period of time and those same friendly, intelligent, wonderful people... will become as nasty and as violent as the most bloodthirsty Klingon. You don't believe me? Look at those faces. Look in their eyes. You know I’m right, don’t you?"
- — Quark to Nog
Humans are a bipedal, primate species, with an average lifespan of 120 years (2410s). There are two genders - male and female. The average height of a human male is 193cm (6'3"), compared to 181cm (5'9") for a female.
Humans are the most culturally and ethnically diverse race in the Galaxy.
The different ‘races’ of Humans are thought to have come about when Homo Sapiens interbred with the last surviving members of the other humanoid species on Earth including:
- Homo Habilis
- Homo Rudolfensis
- Homo Ergaster
- Homo Erectus
- Homo Floresiensis
- Homo Heidelbergensis
- Homo Neanderthalensis
- Homo Rhodesiensis
The nine different Human races that evolved from this are:
- Bushmen (South Africans)
- Negroids (Africans)
- Negritoes (Southeast Asians)
- Melanochroi (Mediterraneans)
- Australoids (Aboriginals)
- Xanthochroi (Europeans)
- Polynesians (Hawaiians)
- Mongoloids (East Asians)
- Esquimaux (Eskimos)
Earth history has been extensively studied by Humans and non-Humans alike. Those who study history are known as "historians". One famous historian, John Gill, taught history in the 23rd century by lecturing on the causes and motivations of historical events, rather than simply reciting dates and events. (TOS: "Patterns of Force")
In 2369, evidence was discovered that suggests many of the galaxy's humanoid races were descended from a single humanoid race, the originators of the basic anatomy. Around 4.5 billion years ago they had seeded many worlds with a DNA code to guide evolution to a form resembling their own. Humans displayed evidence of these DNA sequences. (TNG: "The Chase")
According to Q, approximately 3.5 billion years ago, "give or take an eon or two," a group of amino acids combined to form the first proteins, in the region of Earth that eventually became known as France. This first life on the planet developed into, among other things, the Human species. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
Approximately 290 million years ago, the semi-aquatic amphibian species Eryops lived on Earth. Eryops was probably the last link between the branches of life that evolved along separate paths into dinosaurs and mammals. The mammalian line resulted in Humans. (VOY: "Distant Origin")
One religious account for the creation of Humans featured the first two members of the species, Adam and Eve, being created by God. In 2268, Sargon said that the story of all Humans being descended from Adam and Eve may have been based on his own people having colonized Earth some 600,000 years prior. However, James T. Kirk replied that 23rd century science indicated life had evolved independently on Earth (a conclusion later bolstered by Q). Spock thought that Sargon's people might have, instead, colonized Vulcan rather than Earth. (TOS: "Return to Tomorrow"; TNG: "All Good Things...")
Approximately thirty-five thousand years ago, multiple species of humanoids co-existed on Earth, two of which were modern Humans and Neanderthals. However, the Neanderthals became extinct, which turned out to be fortunate for modern Humans. (ENT: "Dear Doctor")
The Greek civilization arose in approximately 2700 BC. Much of Earth's culture and philosophy began with the Greeks. To Captain James T. Kirk in the 23rd century, the Greek civilization was seen as the beginnings of a "Golden Age". (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")
Another ancient civilization, the Egyptians, constructed large pyramids as part of their accomplishments. Their Great Pyramid of Giza was the largest of the pyramids built in Egypt and was finished around 2600 BC. Its construction was observed by time-traveling anthropologists beginning in 2769. (ENT: "Cold Front")
Some battles that took place in ancient Human history were remembered into the 24th century. One such battle involved a small band of Spartans led by King Leonidas, who defended a mountain pass against a vast Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC. The Spartans put up a "heroic struggle" (according to Julian Bashir), until they were wiped out. (DS9: "What You Leave Behind")
The Roman Empire – arising in the first century BC and lasting in one form or another until the 15th century – was the first major global power in Human history. Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar (63 BC – 14 AD) was viewed by many, including Khan, as having achieved great things for the Empire during his reign. (TOS: "Space Seed") The Roman Empire was seen by Jean-Luc Picard to have begun its fall as a civilization in the 5th century when the Visigoths attacked the capital city of Rome during the reign of Emperor Honorious. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds")
Following on the heels of Rome was a popular religion, Christianity, with a basic philosophy of, as Spock summarized it, "total love and total brotherhood." It arose in the ancient world beginning in the 1st century and followed the teachings of Jesus Christ. The religion considered Christ to be the son of God. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses")
A member of Species 8472 said of Humans in 2375, "At first glance they're so primitive. Genetic impurities, no telepathy, violent. And yet they've created so many beautiful ways to convey their ideas: literature, art, music." (VOY: "In the Flesh") Unfortunately, Human history before the discovery of the warp drive is, in many ways, not defined by literature, art, and music but by military conflicts, plague, and inhumanity.
The trend begins with a series of related military campaigns – fought for causes both religious and political – that took place during the 11th century through the 13th century. These were known as the Crusades. These wars gave Human history "character" according to Q. (DS9: "Q-Less")
Half of Europe was killed by the bubonic plague circa 1334. Flint saw it that summer from Constantinople: "... It marched through the streets, the sewers. It left the city by ox cart, by sea, to kill half of Europe. The rats, rustling and squealing in the night as they, too, died." (TOS: "Requiem for Methuselah")
Beginning in 1478, the Spanish Inquisition was founded in Spain to suppress heresies against the Christian religion. The Inquisition was regarded by Humans as a particularly brutal institution into at least the 24th century, and was regarded by Q as another historical event that provided character to Humanity and kept it from being boring. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; DS9: "Q-Less")
Another inquisition in the name of Christianity took place during the 17th century. The scientist Galileo Galilei publicly supported the idea that the Earth was not the center of the universe. He was tried and convicted of heresy in 1633 by an inquisition as a result, and many of his books were burned. (DS9: "In the Hands of the Prophets")
- Troi: "[S]everal Indian tribes rose up against their Spanish overlords and drove them out of what is now called New Mexico."
- Anthwara: "Ten years later, the Spanish returned to reconquer the area. They were ... brutal ... I would use the word savage. They killed our people by the hundreds ... maimed thousands more."
Another took place in the late 18th century, when George Washington helped win a war for his colonies' independence from Great Britain. This was generally known as the American Revolution and resulted in the establishment of the United States of America. In 2366 some, such as Beverly Crusher, considered Washington a military general; others, such as Kyril Finn, considered him a terrorist. (TNG: "The High Ground")
Commerce arose in the United States following the revolution, and throughout the 18th century and 19th century, ocean-going "Yankee Traders" sailed the oceans in search of mercantile opportunity. (TNG: "The Last Outpost")
In 1794, army general Napoléon Bonaparte rose to power, installing himself as absolute ruler of France in 1799, declared himself Emperor of France, and subsequently dominated Europe. The British Royal Navy, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson, defeated the combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. Napoleon was ultimately defeated at Waterloo in 1815 due to the combined efforts of the British General Wellington, and the Prussian General Blucher. (TNG: "Hide and Q", "The Best of Both Worlds"; VOY: "The Thaw")
Human civilization experienced major wars that involved nearly every continent on Earth during the 20th and 21st centuries. The first two such wars – the first and second World Wars – saw six million and eleven million Humans die, respectively, from the effects of despotism alone. The third resulted in 37 million such deaths, and a total of 600 million Human deaths. (TOS: "Bread and Circuses"; Star Trek: First Contact; VOY: "In the Flesh")
- In "Bread and Circuses", Spock gave casualty figures for each of World Wars I, II, and III. His figures are substantially off for total casualties that records show for the first and second world wars, even when all civilians are taken out of the equation. Only by assuming he was discussing deaths from despotism alone (reasonable in the context of his statement) do the numbers appear to match both data known in 1967 and later Trek statements on WWIII deaths.
The Second World War was a conflict, in part, between the forces of fascism – epitomized by Germany's Adolf Hitler and his Nazi political party – and those who opposed such a form of government. (TOS: "The City on the Edge of Forever") Initially assuming an official position of neutrality, the United States fully entered the conflict after a Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. (TNG: "The Enemy") Hitler and his allies were defeated, but left controversy in their wake. In the 23rd century, some, such as Spock, saw the Nazis as sadistic; some, such as Kirk saw them as "brutal, perverted" and that they "had to be destroyed at a terrible cost". Still others, such as John Gill, saw them governing over the "most efficient state... Earth ever knew", and believed that some of the Nazi approaches could prove beneficial to a society. Spock agreed with Gill, at least as to efficiency: "That tiny country – beaten, bankrupt, defeated, rose in a few years to stand only one step away from global domination." (TOS: "Patterns of Force"; VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II"; ENT: "Storm Front", "Storm Front, Part II")
- It is possible that Kirk may have been referencing the Korean War (1950-1953) and the Vietnam War (1957-1975), which both involved the United States and the Soviet Union.
The 20th century also saw the rise of nuclear weaponry and the beginnings of space exploration. In 1947, the three Ferengi Quark, his brother Rom, and nephew Nog were accidentally transported back in time from the 24th century to Roswell, New Mexico, and were mistaken for Martians. After returning to their own time by using beta radiation from a nuclear explosion, the incident was passed off by the government as a weather balloon. (DS9: "Little Green Men")
1968, the year in which a malfunctioning orbital nuclear weapon nearly detonated, was viewed by 23rd century Humans as one of the most critical years on record. Then-current Earth crises "would fill a tape bank", according to Spock. Assassinations, government coups, wars in Asia, the Communist/Capitalist conflicts, and orbiting hydrogen bombs were among the greatest problems facing Humanity at that time. (TOS: "Assignment: Earth", "A Private Little War", "The Omega Glory") Despite this, Humanity first landed two men on Earth's moon and returned them safely to Earth the following year. (VOY: "One Small Step", "Threshold"; ENT: "Carbon Creek")
- TOS: "Assignment: Earth" predicted that in 1968 a government coup would take place in an Asian country. In the real 1968, a coup did occur in Asia, in the country of Iraq. That episode – broadcast in March of 1968 – also predicted an "important" assassination for 1968. Dr. Martin Luther King was killed in April; Robert Kennedy in June. The Watergate break-in and cover-up of the 1970s was also mentioned by Q as being an event which gave Human history "character". (DS9: "Q-Less")
The 20th century was when the computer age begun. Henry Starling introduced technological innovations in 1969, when he introduced the first isograted circuit and founded Chronowerx Industries, by reverse-engineering technology from the future. However, this timeline was negated when the Aeon was prevented from reaching 1967 by the USS Voyager breaking the time loop that lead it there. (VOY: "Future's End")
The 20th century also saw the start of genetic modifications to the Human genome and the creation of Humans (popularly known as Augments) made stronger, faster, and smarter by the hand of scientists. In 1993, a group of Augments seized power simultaneously in over forty nations and sparked the Eugenics Wars. The wars were particularly devastating, and during them civilization was on the verge of collapse in some parts of the world. (TOS: "Space Seed"; Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan) The terrible experiences that Humanity had with genetic manipulation resulted in long lasting prohibitions against intentional "improvement" of the Human genome well into the 24th century. (DS9: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")
In 2002 humans sent one of the first interstellar probes, Nomad, to space. (TOS: "The Changeling") After advances in sub-light propulsion rendered sleeper ships a thing of the past around 2018, manned and unmanned exploration of space further advanced. Colonel Shaun Geoffrey Christopher led the first successful mission to Saturn. (TOS: "Space Seed", "Tomorrow is Yesterday")
The United States suffered economic setbacks in the early 2000s. They were addressed circa 2020 by establishing Sanctuary Districts in major US cities. These walled districts were originally created to help America's massive homeless and jobless population. Instead, the districts became little more than prisons for the destitute and the mentally ill. In September of 2024, mounting tensions in the Sanctuary Districts culminated in the Bell Riots. Political fallout from the riots resulted in the abolition of the districts and the United States finally began to face the serious social problems it had struggled with for over a century. (DS9: "Past Tense, Part I", "Past Tense, Part II")
During the early 2000s, the international scene was deteriorating as well. The United Nations had been reorganized as the New United Nations. (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint") A number of nations joined together in a union known as the Eastern Coalition. Hostilities between the Eastern Coalition and forces including the United States broke out in 2026 as World War III. The conflict soon escalated into full-blown nuclear holocaust, engulfing much of the globe and again nearly returning Human civilization to a dark age. 600 million people died across the planet as a result. The subsequent collapse of the global economy, political systems, and the drastic environmental effects of the war devastated those nations which had escaped direct nuclear attack. (Star Trek: First Contact; VOY: "In the Flesh"; Star Trek: Enterprise "In A Mirror Darkly" production art)Around this same time Humanity was still making efforts to explore space. In 2032, a successful manned mission to Mars, Ares IV, took place in the midst of world war. Although the command module was lost in a graviton ellipse, this mission was considered by some as a precursor for Humankind's further exploration of space. (VOY: "One Small Step") And in 2037, the Charybdis was launched by the United States in a third attempt to take Humans beyond the Sol system. Unknown at the time, that ship was swept off course by an unknown alien force and finally reached the Theta 116 system. (TNG: "The Royale")
With most of the major governments collapsed, law and order soon degraded into a "guilty-until-proven-innocent", lawyer-free show trial system which lasted until 2079 in some parts of the world. (Star Trek: First Contact; TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint", "All Good Things...")
The period from the 19th to the late 21st centuries also saw dramatic environmental degradation due to Human activities. Humans were responsible for the extinction of many species, including the draco lizard, white rhinoceros, the buffalo, and the humpback whale (the latter eventually proved to be sentient and were brought back from extinction by James Kirk). Human industrial activities also resulted in massive air pollution and degradation of Earth's ozone layer. The nuclear wars led to several "nuclear winters", as well as radiation poisoning of both Humans and animals. (TOS: "The Man Trap"; Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; TNG: "When The Bough Breaks", "New Ground")
First Contact to the Federation
After the last global conflict, Dr. Zefram Cochrane made mankind's first faster-than-light spaceflight in 2063. This resulted in the first formal post-warp contact by an interstellar race: the Vulcans. This affected Humanity in a profound way. (Star Trek: First Contact) The newly gained warp-capability was immediately put to use and several crewed as well as uncrewed missions of exploration and colonization were launched, e.g., the SS Valiant in 2065, Friendship 1 in 2067, the SS Conestoga in 2069, and a ship to colonize Terra 10 prior to or in 2069. (ENT: "Terra Nova"; TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before"; TAS: "The Terratin Incident"; VOY: "Friendship One") New Berlin on the moon was established by 2067, and the first Human colony on Mars was formally incorporated in 2103. (ENT: "Terra Nova"; VOY: "The 37's", "Lifesigns")
Following first contact, Humanity rebuilt its world from the ashes of the devastating nuclear conflict; most forms of poverty and disease were eradicated from the planet within the next fifty years. However, it was a very difficult fifty years and global recovery was uneven: in the early 2080s, some areas of the planet remained in a state of near-anarchy; and from a 24th-century perspective, Earth was still seen as recovering from World War III well into the early 22nd century; Picard even called the era "chaotic." (Star Trek: First Contact; TNG: "Up The Long Ladder", "Encounter at Farpoint"; ENT: "Broken Bow")
During the mid- to late-21st century, Humanity fought four wars against the alien race known as the Ferasans. The conflict ended with the Treaty of Sirius and the victory of Earth. Ferasans were forced to do a complete demilitarization of their government, with only a small police force permitted, and to allow complete and unrestricted access to their territory. (TAS: "The Slaver Weapon", Star Trek Online)
By the early 22nd century, the situation on Earth was still "chaotic" as the planet had yet to fully recover from the aftermaths of the Third World War. During this time, Liam Dieghan founded the Neo-transcendentalist movement, advocating "a simpler life in which one lived in harmony with nature." (TNG: "Up The Long Ladder")
As one of the first steps toward a unified Earth government, the European Hegemony, a somewhat loose alliance in the European region on Earth, formed. (TNG: "Up The Long Ladder") By 2150, all of Earth's former nations had joined the United Earth government. (TNG: "Attached")
In 2151, Humanity's first starship capable of warp 5 was launched: Template:EnterpriseNX. It was the first of a line of ships that would, from a design and organizational point of view, evolve into the ships used by Starfleet into the 24th century and beyond.
Enterprise had a distinguished service career, but is best known for thwarting the Xindi plan to eradicate Humanity. In the 22nd century, the Sphere-Builders informed the Xindi that they would be the victims of a genocidal attack from Humans in the 26th century, and should act preemptively to eliminate the threat. This was a fabrication on the part of the Sphere-Builders to use the Xindi to their own advantage. (ENT: "Azati Prime") The Xindi Council went along with the advice, tested a prototype weapon on Earth in 2153 (resulting in the deaths of nearly 7 million humans), and intended to use a more powerful weapon to destroy the entire planet. (ENT: "The Expanse") This crisis became the most threatening event to Humans as a species since World War III. Enterprise, under the command of Captain Jonathan Archer, was able to both severely damage the Sphere-Builders' technology systems and convince the Xindi that Humans were not their enemy. (ENT: "Zero Hour")
After the Xindi crisis, and following increased tensions with the Romulan Star Empire, several of the affected political powers in the region of space – including Humans – joined together in an alliance known as the Coalition of Planets. The Coalition of Planets was founded in 2155, and was made up of several worlds who later became integral to the formation and early history of the United Federation of Planets, formed in 2161. (ENT: "Demons"; TNG: "The Outcast") Humanity's participation in this Coalition marked the true beginning of its growth into an interstellar species.
In the 2160s the tensions that existed in the 2150s between Earth and the Romulan Star Empire flared up into a full-scale interstellar war. The Earth-Romulan War was a major conflict, with military and political ramifications felt for at least two centuries. Neither side clearly prevailed. Earth and the Star Empire finally ended the violence after the Battle of Cheron and established a neutral zone as a buffer between their two spheres of influence. The neutral zone lasted into at least the 24th century. (TOS: "Balance of Terror"; TNG: "The Defector")
United Federation of Planets
- See also: Federation history
The Federation, as a body, was not involved in the Earth-Romulan War. (TOS: "Balance of Terror") However, after that war Humanity's history and that of the Federation go hand in hand. The United Earth Starfleet grew into the military and exploratory arm of the Federation known as simply "Starfleet" by the 23rd century. The Federation president's office was in the city of Paris on Earth. (DS9: "Homefront", "Paradise Lost"; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country) Political crises and conflicts that involved the Federation drew Humanity in, and vice versa. Human involvement in Federation matters in the 23rd century were so extensive that they prompted at least one Klingon to claim in 2293 that the Federation was little more than "a 'homo sapiens' only club." (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country) Some major examples:
- The artificial lifeform known as V'ger threatened to destroy all life on Earth in the 2270s, but was repelled by Starfleet. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture)
- The Whale Probe in 2286 was doing significant damage to Earth and Starfleet facilities; it was eliminated as a threat through the efforts of Humans and a half-Human Vulcan. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)
- Earth was threatened with assimilation into the Borg Collective in late 2366 and late 2373, but each instance Starfleet intervened. (TNG: "The Best of Both Worlds"; Star Trek: First Contact)
- In 2375, towards the end of the Dominion War, the Breen Confederacy, which had just joined the Dominion, destroyed much of Starfleet Headquarters' offices in San Francisco. The Federation Starfleet defended the planet. (DS9: "The Changing Face of Evil")
- The threat against Earth from a thalaron radiation weapon created by the Reman leader Shinzon aboard his flagship, the Scimitar in 2379 was repulsed by Starfleet. (Star Trek Nemesis)
- The Federation maintained patrol over the Romulan Neutral Zone, the result of an Earth-Romulan Star Empire treaty, into the 24th century. (TNG: "The Neutral Zone") After Romulus was destroyed, Nero tried to destroy Earth despite having been transported to an alternate reality, but was stopped by Kirk and Spock. (Star Trek)
They reformed the United Earth into the Earth Republic following the Earth-Klingon War to help assist in colonial security. Humans also have an open policy to many species, having many species living in their territory.