Evolution is the change in inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. It was first proposed by humans in the 19th century by Charles Darwin but proposals of similar theories date back to Anaximander and other pre-Socratic Greek philosophers. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. It is known to be a scientific fact throughout Earth and is preached widely by the Federation and Starfleet.
- Planets and races which are candidates for entry into the Federation are encouraged to embrace evolution as fact before they are considered for joining. Bajor was a unusual exception.
- Federation Bureau of Science
- Federation Historical Foundation in affiliation with Memory Alpha (planet)